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Vecchio 23-07-2015, 13.42.31   #761
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Segnalo con piacere questi articoli (ma anche gli altri sono molto interessanti) di Vincenzo Tortora aka Spot86 per chi frequenta(va) diversi forum.

Usa espressioni come "restrizione glucidica intermittente" oppure "alimentazione glucidica temporizzata" che rientra nel "timed restricted cho-feeding" delle IF senza per questo praticare il digiuno come nelle versioni dure e pure ma gestendo i macro in maniera quasi-circadiana.

Sommariamente siamo in linea coi vari tipi segnalati nei post sopra.

Digiuno intermittente 2.0: la soluzione pratica per il dimagrimento e la salute
parte 1
parte 2
parte 3

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Vecchio 25-07-2015, 11.48.18   #762
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Letto velocemente, sembra molto simile alla soluzione di Kiefer.
Moderation in bodybuilding is a vice, moderation in discipline is a failure. (Dorian Yates)

Successful individuals view mistakes as valuable tools for self-correction that motivate them to actively seek the knowledge necessary for further mastery. (Mike Mentzer)

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Vecchio 28-07-2015, 18.30.46   #763
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Questi sono degli esempi pratici di

Borge A. Fagerli - The Biorhythm Diet
Borge A. Fagerli - Advanced Concept Diet 2.0

che appaiono nel blog

p.s. Allenamento pomeridiano, mentre per allenamenti mattutini piccola quota di carbo post-wo 25-35gr e il grosso del resto la sera.

Thursday, April 18, 2013

The BioRhythm Diet

This post will outline my favorite dietary protocol and eating pattern, called the BioRhythm Diet. I will not get too far into the sciency stuff, as Borge Fagerli (creator of the diet) has already done that. As a matter of fact, all of his work is quite stellar, so if you are interested in more of his diet & training theory check out his blog and all of his works posted in the articles section of (You will have to run these through Google translate, as they are in Norwegian, but trust me it’s worth the hassle).

So here are the main principles of the diet, and my experiences while using it.

The take home points of this protocol

-During the first part of the day (all meals prior to weight training), focus on consuming Proteins & Fats, while keeping Carbohydrate intake low (<30g). Think meat & whole eggs with some additional Fats such as butter (grass-fed), or healthy oils (coconut / macadamia / olive). Also, be sure to consume some veggies and/or light fruit (berries or melon) with each meal.

-Pre-Training, consume 10g of BCAA (or 30g Whey) and a small amount of Carbs from fruit (5-20g).

-Post-Training, consume 30-50g Protein from a mixture of whey & casein, along with 30-50g Carbs from fruit. Including some saturated Fats (~5-15g) from dairy in this meal can be beneficial, as studies have shown this to increase Protein synthesis (link).

-Eat the absolute majority of your Carbohydrate intake at dinner time, about 2-3 hours before bed. Fat intake should be kept somewhat low during this meal, so focus on lean meats such as chicken breast or beef top-round. My go-to Carb sources in this meal are potatoes, white rice & gluten-free pancakes, but feel free to experiment to find what works best for you.

The benefits I have noticed

-Steady energy all morning and throughout the day. No peaks and valleys like most people suffer due to a High-Carb breakfast.

-Reduced need for morning caffeine. I still have a morning coffee, but just one cup typically fuels me all day, rather than having 2-3 cups throughout the entire day.

-Simplicity. I can eat 3 square meals a day (plus pre/post-workout nutrition) that are delicious & satisfying. No hunger pangs every 2-3 hours. Long-gone are the days of packing Tupperware to eat 5-6 small meals per day.

-Deep, Restful Sleep. In this aspect the BioRhythm diet is pretty much un-matched by anything else that I’ve ever tried. There is nothing better than hitting the sack after crushing a huge Carb-laden meal. It’s truly the best sleep I’ve had in my lifetime. Anecdotally, I believe that I’m actually getting deeper into REM sleep using this diet, because on a regular basis I am having very vivid, almost lucid dreams which don’t usually happen for me.

-Wake up feeling well rested. Obviously a byproduct of a great night of sleep.

-Loss of body-fat. This is surprising considering that my Carb intake is HIGHER than that of my standard diet.

-Increased performance in the gym. Likely because of increased Carb intake, although regardless of the low Carb intake prior to the actual training session.

This is what a typical day of eating looks like for me

Breakfast: Omelet, 4 egg + ½ cup egg-whites w/ mushrooms & salsa, cooked in coconut oil
Lunch: 1 cup F-F Greek Yogurt + 15g Whey Iso + 15g Coconut Oil & Fiber supplement
Pre-Training: 10g BCAA + 2 mandarins
Post-Training: 15g Whey Iso + ½ cup F-F Greek Yogurt & 10g Coconut Oil

Dinner: Chicken Breast w/ 2lb+ (yes, pounds…) Basmati rice or Yukon potato
(Occasionally I will eat a carton of ice cream along-side the rice/potatoes)


Tuesday, July 23, 2013
BioRhythm Meal Template

Dominik from asked for a meal template that I would use on the BioRhythm Diet. So here is what a general training day could look like for a 175 - 195lb (80-90kg) male;

6 Omega-3 eggs
1 serving Carbs*
+ Non-Starchy Veggies


8oz / 225g Red Meat or Oily Fish
1 serving Carbs*
1 Tbsp Healthy Oil
+ Non-Starchy Veggies

WORKOUT: 10g BCAA Drink (optional)

Meal 3:
15-30g Whey Protein
1 Cup / 226g Cottage Cheese
2+ serving Carbs*
+ 5-10g Fats (optional)

Meal 4:
8oz / 225g Lean Meat (cooked)
3+ serving Carbs*
+ Veggies

*Carb Servings
~ Half-cup / 40g Oats (dry)
~ 1 Packet / 28g Grits (dry)
~ 150g Potato (raw)
~ Half-cup / 90g Rice (cooked)
~ 1 Large Banana
~ 1 Large Apple
~ 1 Cup Berries

Protein / Carb servings can be adjusted up or down to suit individual needs. Preferentially you would limit meal #1 & #2 to 1 serving of carbs (or less), while placing the majority of the carbs at meals #3 & #4.

The template could also be used for non-training days, simply by removing the BCAA & Whey as well as reducing some of the carbs at meal 3.
Friday, April 25, 2014

BioRhythm Diet / Typical Days Eating + Training Log 4/25/15

Thought I'd include some diet related stuff since you guys seem interested in that.

My bodyweight is currently hovering around 90kg and my goal is to maintain it while using the BioRhythm diet to Recomp / Consolidate my gains. Things have been going well for the past 2 weeks. I've had to increase my food intake quite a bit to avoid losing weight. At 3000kcals per day I began losing weight rapidly, so I've gradually increased it.

Here's todays diet log, which is pretty typical of most days, considering that I basically train everyday.

Breakfast (8am)(493kcal, 31 fat, 11 carbs, 40 protein)
6 Large Eggs
1 cup Green Beans
2 Fish Oil Pills

Lunch (12pm)(553kcal, 30 fat, 17 carbs, 54 protein)
Beef (140g)
1 cup Green Beans
1.5oz raw Almonds
2 Fish Oil Pills

Pre-Workout (4pm)(369kcal, 25 fat, 8 carbs, 29 protein)
Black Coffee
1 scoop Whey Isolate
1 Tbsp Coconut Oil
30 Pistachios

Post Workout (6:30pm)(121kcal, 0 fat, 31 carbs, 1 protein)
1 Large Banana

Dinner (7:30pm)(1,751kcal, 5 fat, 350 carbs, 69 protein)
1 can Tuna
1 cup Black Beans
2 cups (Raw) White Rice (cooked in the rice cooker)

Dessert (8:30pm)(446kcal, 6 fat, 83 carbs, 15 protein)
1 cup Blueberries
1 cup rolled Oatmeal

Macro Totals: 3,733kcal, 97 fat, 500 carb, 54 fiber, 208 protein

Saturday, January 11, 2014
Recomposition Guide 1.0

I’ve been tinkering with these protocols for quite a while, achieving what I feel like is a great deal of success with my own physique. Everything herein will describe the methods I have used and that I feel are optimal based on experience. Lastly, before diving into this, I’d like to give credit to Lyle McDonald (, Martin Berkhan ( and JC Deen ( for exposing me to these ideas, as well as all the superb info that they put out for free.


Recomposition is the so called holy-grail of body transformation. The ideal scenario of simultaneous fat loss & muscle gain. There are varying degrees to which you can manipulate these variables, which will enable you to skew your results in either direction, to suit your specific goal. Lots of folks say that attempts at recomposition largely result in nothing but wheel spinning, but not in my case;

Day 1 - 190lbs

Day 55 - 185lbs

Thoughts on who Should / Should-Not use this Protocol

-I believe this will work best for advanced trainees. Rates of muscle gain will be slow for these individuals anyway and I’m of the opinion that bulking is unproductive for them. I prefer slow, gradual progress in both directions (muscle gain/fat-loss). Newbies and Intermediates; please feel free to experiment with my methods, but you may be better served by simply focusing on strength & muscle gain.

-You must be able to track your macronutrient intake. You don’t have to be OCD about it, but be reasonably accurate. Weigh / Measure your food for at least a month to learn your portions, then eye-ball it after that.

-You must be relatively lean (sub 15% body-fat for men). There are various factors why this protocol will work better for lean individuals, primarily because of insulin sensitivity. If you’re fatter than my recommendation, just go with a standard calorie deficit (-20% /day) until you de-fatten yourself.


-You must be patient. I believe part of the reason most people ‘cut’ or ‘bulk’ is because they NEED to see the number on the scale moving to assure themselves that they are making progress. Recomposition requires a bit of patience and a ‘big-picture’ point of view, as day to day fluctuations in bodyweight will be largely irrelevant. You must maintain an objective view. If you’re one of those people who freak out if the scale moves up a few pounds, then proceeds to eat nothing but celery all day… this is not the program for you.

Constructing the Diet

Step #1 – Set maintenance calories

I would assume that most people reading this have a decent estimate of their maintenance caloric intake (or thereabouts), if so (yay), then you already have a number to start with.

If you don’t have any idea what your maintenance is, multiply your bodyweight x 14-16 to determine your daily caloric intake. Lower on the scale if you are sedentary, higher if you are active. I suggest most people start with bodyweight x 14 and make adjustments based on progress. Don’t obsess over the numbers, here. Your actual daily maintenance intake is on a sliding scale from day to day. We’re merely attempting to capture a general average.

Step #2 – Set caloric surplus / deficit based on goals

Generally speaking, you will have two different days;

Low day: Create a caloric deficit to lose body-fat
---------- (Maintenance – 10-30%)

High day: Create a caloric surplus to gain muscle
---------- (Maintenance + 10-30%)

Now this is where things can get tricky… Determining your surplus/deficit for each day, relative to your goal. I’m going keep this simple by listing a few standard set-ups, rather than attempting to cover every possible scenario.

Vanilla Recomposition
Low Day: Maintenance –20%
High Day: Maintenance +20%

Recomp – Bias toward muscle gain
Low Day: Maintenance –10%
High Day: Maintenance +20-30%

Recomp – Bias toward fat-loss
Low Day: Maintenance –25-30%
High Day: Maintenance +10%

As you can see there can be many different combinations for distributing calories. I recommend starting with one of the above and adjusting if necessary.

Matching the diet to the training;
-If you train every other day (3x/week) like most people do, make those the High days, with non-training days being Low days.
-If you train everyday like I do, simply rotate through high/low/high/low. This is what I believe to be optimal and has worked very well for me.
-Having 2 Low days in a row is fine, if they are non-training days.
-Having 2 High days in a row is not recommended under most circumstances.
-Do not have a High day on a non-training day.

Step #3 – Calculate Macronutrient requirements

Macronutrients can be highly variable between individuals, so experimentation is obviously necessary. With that said, these are the guidelines I’d like to see most people start with, adjusting based on results.

Low day: 1.2g/lb(bw) Protein, .4g/lb(bw) Fat, Remainder Carbohydrate
High day: 1g/lb(bw) Protein, .3g/lb(bw) Fat, Remainder Carbohydrate

Meal Pattern

Meal timing is largely irrelevant, although I do think it wise for the majority of calories to come after the training session. Whether you want to accomplish this by using Intermittent Fasting, the BioRhythm Diet (also see this for meal template options), or whatever else, doesn’t matter. Just do it.

In Practice

Let’s say our sample lifter is 180lb with a proposed maintenance of ~2500 calories (bodyweight x14). He is going to do a Vanilla Recomp;

Low Day: 2500 –20% = 2000 calories
High Day: 2500 +20% = 3000 calories

Based on the above, his macros are calculated as;

Low Day: 215 P / 70 F / 125 C
High Day: 180 P / 55 F / 445 C

Gauging Progress

First and foremost, your performance in the gym is your primary indicator of success. For all intents and purposes, if you’re gaining strength on the compound lifts, you’re gaining muscle.

I personally do not track body measurements via calipers or measuring tape, but if that floats your boat, go right ahead. I primarily use the mirror for feedback on body-comp.

Regarding scale weight, what I’ve found to be the most helpful is to record my morning weight 5 – 7 days out of the week and average them out. When comparing these averages from week to week, you can determine what path your weight is on; generally increasing, decreasing or staying the same.

Ultima modifica di Kaamos : 28-07-2015 alle ore 18.45.49.
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Vecchio 09-06-2016, 15.12.25   #764
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Q: What is your opinion on daily periodisation of carbohydrate? Plans such as Carb-backloading/Carbnite claim a hormonal advantage to evening carb intake - what are your thoughts? Thanks!!

A: Yesterday’s Q&A looked at manipulating carbohydrate intake from day to day and its effects on fat loss. This one will examine the evidence behind manipulating your carb intake within a given day.
As you point out, John Kiefer - author of Carbnite, and subsequently, Carb-Backloading (CBL) - who popularised this idea.

The premise behind CBL basically revolves around taking advantage of the supposed fluctuations in insulin sensitivity (IS) within the muscle and fat tissue throughout the day, as well as the non-insulin mediated uptake of glucose within the exercised muscles. For example, insulin sensitivity in both muscle and fat tissue is generally higher in the morning relative to the evening. As such, Kiefer has suggested that eating carbs in the morning/earlier in the day (when overall IS may be higher) relative to the evening will result in greater glucose uptake by the muscle (a good thing), but also in the fat tissue (a potentially bad thing).

Therefore, Kiefer suggests that a way to get around this problem would be to train in the evenings as well as consuming almost all of your daily carbohydrate post-workout (PWO), whilst eating as little carbs as possible throughout the day. That way, you would supposedly take advantage of the reduced insulin sensitivity in fat tissue in the evenings, but also have the benefits of increased insulin sensitivity (more specifically, non-insulin mediated uptake of glucose) in the muscles PWO due to the evening training. In addition, by avoiding carbs as much as possible during the day (when overall IS is high), fat gain via de novo lipogenesis (the creation of new fat tissue via carbohydrate), would apparently be minimised. Overall, this would hypothetically result in the potential for successful body recomposition (i.e. gain muscle whilst losing fat).

The whole idea of shifting carbohydrate intake to later in the day is largely based on two studies, which are frequently cited throughout CBL. The first study by Keim et al. (1997), compared the effects of eating 70% of the day’s calories in the morning (AM) vs. the evening (PM) on body mass and body composition during a six-week hypocaloric diet (60% CHO, 18% PRO & 22% FAT) in a group of 10 women. It was found that the ingestion of the larger AM meals resulted in greater weight loss compared with the larger PM intake, but this extra weight loss consisted of lean body mass (LBM). Therefore, the consumption of larger PM meals resulted in greater preservation of lean body mass (LBM) and resulted in a greater reduction of fat mass.

The more recent trial used to support the evening carb intake of CBL is a 6-month study by Sofer et al (2011), in which the authors compared the effects of carbs eaten mostly at dinner vs. eaten throughout the day, in diets consisting of 1300-1500 kcal (40-50% CHO, 20% PRO & 30-35% FAT) in a group of 78 Israeli police officers. It was found that reductions in weight, body fat and waist circumference were greater in the evening-carb experimental condition vs. the control condition. In addition, glucose control, inflammation, blood lipids and satiety were improved to a greater degree in the evening-carb group.

Moreover, leptin levels decreased to a lesser degree in the experimental condition and may partially explain the better maintenance in satiety within this group, as well as the greater observed weight loss. It is possible that the greater reductions in satiety in the control group led to a greater caloric intake in comparison to the evening-carb group, and thus explaining the more favorable body composition results seen in the experimental group.

To conclude, the general concept of CBL is supported by science. However, this science is limited to two studies with their fair share of limitations, rendering the topic inconclusive in the absence of compelling evidence. Moreover, if we consider shifting only carbohydrate as opposed to overall caloric intake, the data supporting the concept of CBL diminished to a single study. Nevertheless, if we consider the overall impact of calorie/carbohydrate placement on body composition from these two studies, though significant, in reality such differences are trivial.

Because of the rigidity of CBL with respect to its training and dietary recommendations, adherence may become an issue for all but the most dedicated dieters/trainees. After all, adherence to a specific protocol is the single most important determinant of long-term success.
At the end of the day, CBL will get some people results, but it will do so because of the caloric deficit and sufficient protein, not because of the intricate protocols.

As such, with respect to carb placement for body composition and performance, total intake is the primary consideration. A secondary consideration would be the positioning of these carbs in relation to training (around-workout nutrition) in order to optimise training performance. Once these factors are in place and consistently achieved, then, and only then, should someone have the option to experiment with hypothetical protocols.

For an in-depth review of Carb-Backloading and references, see my 2-part
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Vecchio 09-06-2016, 16.37.17   #765
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Q: Women and carb-back-loading, how much carbs are necessary after the low carb phase for having that effect of full muscles without gaining fat and water retention?

A: This would primarily depend on a couple of factors:

1. The capacity for glycogen storage within the muscles (which would be around 300-400g for the average female lifter).
2. The current fullness of the muscles (which would be primarily dependent on daily carb intake and training volume).

For the sake of argument, we will say that the muscles are about a third full (~100-130g) which would be reflective of a moderate (150-200g) daily carb intake and a typical resistance training programme. When it comes to ingesting carbs in the evening, an intake of 200-270g would more or less maximise glycogen storage (according to this hypothetical example, at least), assuming that minimal amounts of carbs have been consumed already that day. As such, in order to make muscles appear fuller, I’d go with about 200g in this window.

Whilst fat gain would be dictated by your daily calorie intake, a rule of thumb (anecdotally at least) would be that providing you don’t ‘overspill’ your muscle glycogen storage capacity, any noticeable water retention would be minimal.
It’s worth mentioning, however, that this answer is purely a guess based on hypotheticals and anecdote. Trial and error is the only practical way for you to find out this answer for yourself.
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Vecchio 14-06-2016, 18.09.51   #767
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Ottimi spunti!
Moderation in bodybuilding is a vice, moderation in discipline is a failure. (Dorian Yates)

Successful individuals view mistakes as valuable tools for self-correction that motivate them to actively seek the knowledge necessary for further mastery. (Mike Mentzer)

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Vecchio 04-07-2016, 13.54.29   #768
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The Facts About Intermittent Fasting, Fat Loss, And Muscle Growth

By Layne Norton, PhD
Last updated: Jun 29, 2016

Proponents of intermittent fasting make a compelling case for their approach. But is it best for your goals? Here's the scientific breakdown, along with a middle-ground approach for maximum muscle growth!

IF 2.0, come scritto qua e la, versione digiuno ad acqua rimane solo nella lean gains di berkhan, gli altri suggeriscono di distribuire le proteine durante la giornata.

"It's becoming clear that while your daily protein intake is important, so is how much you consume per meal and how those meals are distributed.

However, if you want some of the benefits from intermittent fasting but want to optimize muscle mass, I would advise a different type of fast.

Rather than cutting out all calories, simply restrict carbs and fats during your fasting window, but continue to evenly distribute your protein intake throughout the day.

Take this approach, and you are still going to get a large volume of food in the feeding period and spend a large portion of the day in a low-insulin fat-burning state, but you'll be able to distribute protein in such a way that is better for muscle growth."
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Vecchio 04-07-2016, 16.34.12   #769
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Moderation in bodybuilding is a vice, moderation in discipline is a failure. (Dorian Yates)

Successful individuals view mistakes as valuable tools for self-correction that motivate them to actively seek the knowledge necessary for further mastery. (Mike Mentzer)

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Vecchio 21-12-2016, 17.00.21   #770
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Thursday, April 21, 2016

BioRhythm Diet - Revisited

In light of some of the more recent podcast interviews and articles involving Borge Fagerli and Menno Henselmans, I have some highly consolidated bullet points to share, regarding details to the BioRhythm Diet / Circadian Rhythm related protocols. Following the bullet-points, I've summarized the protocol that I will personally be using from this point forward. I really encourage you to read the articles and listen to the podcasts that I have linked at the end of this post. The information therein is far too expansive to capture in a single blog-post, but I have tried my best to provide some useful take-aways that may help those already using a BioRhythm type eating pattern.

Circadian Rhythm & Meal Timing
  • Synchronize nutrient intake with daylight hours.
  • Over time intermittent fasting can desynchronize circadian rhythm.
  • Regular meal times will aid in the establishment of proper circadian rhythm.
  • Extrapolating from ‘Blue-Zone’ dietary habits: larger breakfast & lunch, lighter (lean protein & lower carb) dinner.
  • Large meals & higher calories at the beginning of the day can reset circadian rhythm and make people move more & increase NEAT.
  • Improve overall metabolic health by increasing baseline activity level, via more basic movement (i.e. - more standing + walking, rather than sitting all day).
Nutrient Timing
  • Protein should be spaced throughout the day with a double-size serving at the last meal.
  • Protein later in the day (amino-acid surplus during sleep) has benefits pertaining to circadian rhythm.
  • The further into the evening you ingest fats, the more fats will be stored, rather than oxidized. Fats ingested earlier (during daylight hours) will preferentially be oxidized.
  • The timing of protein & carbs is much more important than the timing of fats due to fats being stored and incorporated into cell membranes, more of a long-term effect.
  • There is no magic advantage to ketosis other than appetite suppression.
  • Carbs scale with activity levels, although tolerance is very individual.
  • Most people who lift (and are otherwise sedentary) greatly overestimate carb requirements.
  • Large amounts of carbs are not needed pre-workout. Just have a fruit.
  • Resistance training does not deplete many carbs (One study showed only 40% glycogen depletion after 15 sets per body part).
  • No need to rush the carbs in the post-workout period for the purpose of glycogen re-synthesis (for the standard weight-training population, lifting 1x/day). Stores will return to normal levels in 24hrs (survival mechanisms prevent glycogen deprivation). Things change with endurance training or very high volume weight-training multiple times per day.
  • In a Fasted or Keto state, the body will still restore glycogen to ~70%.
  • There is no discernible advantage to ‘back-loading’ carbs vs. spreading them throughout the day. In fact, a high carb breakfast tends to out-perform low carb breakfast in all areas (food choices play a key role obviously, i.e.- eating eggs + oatmeal vs. sugary cereal + low-fat milk).
  • Carbs in the evening meal have a distinct effect (benefit) on circadian rhythm and can improve sleep quality.
  • Cycle calories (bulk/cut days, moderate surplus/deficit) rather than having ‘refeeds’ or super high carb days.

  • Don’t take life so fucking seriously. Live more. Play more. Do what makes you truly happy.

Ok, so after distilling all that down, here is the general protocol that I will be preceding with;

Meal Timing

  • Eat all meals between the hours of 7-9 in the morning and 7-9 in the evening.
  • Ensure enough food early in the day to have mental and physical surplus.
  • Ensure enough food around training for performance and recovery.
  • Cycle Carbs and Calories based on activity levels & hunger.
Nutrient Timing
  • Protein: 2 - 3 meals during the day (0.4-0.6g/kg), 1 larger portion in the evening (0.8g/kg+).
  • Fats taper from high to low (not zero) throughout the day.
  • Carbs taper from low (not zero) to high throughout the day.
    • If training earlier in the day, add 25-50g carbs to the meal following the workout. Consume the rest/majority of the carbs at the last meal(s).

Generic Meal Template (3 meals/day)

Breakfast – High Protein / High Fat / Low Carb

Lunch – High Protein / Moderate Fat / Moderate Carb

Dinner – High Protein+ / Low Fat /High Carb

Thanks for reading and I hope this has been helpful / informative.

Sigma Nutrition Podcast, Episode73 - Borge Fagerli
Modern Musclehead Podcast, Episode14 - Borge Fagerli
Sigma Nutrition Podcast, Episode51 - Menno Henselmans
Primal Edge Health Podcast, Episode 5, Menno Henselmans
Should you eat breakfast or not ? - Borge Fagerli (Run this one through a translator)
Menno Henselmans - Circadian Rhythm Protein Timing
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Vecchio 19-01-2017, 16.49.22   #771
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Sul consumo dei carbo nella seconda parte della giornata, a parità di calorie e in fasi di ipocalorica.

L'aspetto "orario dell'allenamento" rimane comunque determinante.

Weight loss is greater with consumption of large morning meals and fat-free mass is preserved with large evening meals in women on a controlled weight reduction regimen.

Consuming food later in the day has a bad reputation for fat loss. This well designed metabolic ward study found that when energy intake is controlled, eating most of your calories in the later part of the day vs. earlier in the day led to more favorable changes in body composition during a weight loss diet, even though exercise was carried out in the mornings. These results may be attributed to either circadian rhythm factors or a better synchronization of energy intake with post-exercise muscle protein synthesis.

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